TNT-Audio Readers' Corner
Monthly section devoted to your letters, positive and negative feedback about everything related to Audio and HiFi.

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January 2008

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Better preamp than the T-Preamp
I bought the Trends TA-10.1 and later the TCC-754 preamp based on reviews I read on TNT Audio. Both are great. The biggest strengths of the TA-10.1 is its rhythm, pace, and bass. However, when I put the TCC-754 between my sources and the TA-10.1, some of the bass response and resolution was lost. Is there a power supply you would recommend for the TCC-754 that is better than the one that was shipped with the product?
Is there a preamp out there for more money that you might recommend for the TA-10.1 that may be a little better than the TCC-754? I don't need a phono stage. I am not ripping on the TCC-754, which is amazing for the price. Most people probably wouldn't notice its effects on the TA-10.1, but I do.
Thanks for bringing attention to these products, which are so much better than the mass marketed stuff and so much more fun as well. I was so surprised at the quality of the bass from the TA-10.1 when listening to the Cowboy Junkies when it was connected directly to my laptop. Have a great evening!
Dan - E-mail: dan93309 (at)

Dear Dan,
certainly the TCC-754 is one step below the Trends Audio TA 10.1...but it costs nothing and has a very good phono section! Perhaps you should browse the web for a passive preamp, better if second-hand. These are not hard to find. We reviewed passive preamps in the past years, try having a look at our reviews for some inspiration.
Roughly speaking, it all depends on your budget. You could even try an active preamp, in the second-hand market you can find many things (from well known Companies) for less than, say, 400 €. Currently I'm listening to the TA 10.1 (as pure power amp, via internal jumpers setting) with a Burson Audio P100 active preamp. A worthwhile upgrade! Unfortunately, the P100 is in a whole different price league. I'm just trying to say that with a good preamp the sound of the TA 10.1 can get even better.
If you haven't tried your TA 10.1 as pure power MUST do it! Perhaps you'll discover you don't need a better preamp (two volume pots one after the other are - generally - a no-no). Just move the internal jumpers to exclude the volume pot (see owner's manual). It is an extremely quick and easy procedure. No technical skills required.
Regarding power supplies, see the letter below.
Hope this helped,
Lucio Cadeddu

Question on biamping
I hope it is ok to e-mail you directly. Your articles on the TNT Website regarding the T-amp TA10.1 have inspired me to investigate this audio marvel! Having purchased one and been amazed at the sound quality, I now intend to bi-amp this with a suitable pre-amp. For this purpose I have further chosen the TCC TC-754 Pre-amp. I intend to first use this as a pre - power setup initially, whilst saving for the second T-amp TA10.1.
My question regards powering this setup. In your excellent article on the TCC TC-754 you suggest using "high capacity power supplies (even bigger than 5 amperes, if you are using 1 T-Preamp and 2 T-Amp in biamping mode, for example)". By this do you mean powering all devices from one power supply? Will one supply enough juice for the purpose?
Once again many thanks for your articles, I next intend to build some new speaker cables from your excellent DIY section.
Many thanks in advance.
Eddie - E-mail: eddiec (at)

Dear Eddie,
a good 5A power supply will be sufficient to power both the TA 10.1 and the TCC-754. I'd use a 7A power supply with two TA 10.1's and a TCC preamp instead. Alternatively, you can even use good motorbike batteries.
Keep me updated,
Lucio Cadeddu

T-Amp love
Hi Lucio
OK... I would like to know, are you still enamored with the sonic impact amp as you once were. I have not heard one, but stumbled on to blogs about it. I've ordered a new upgraded version from parts express today (metal case, bananas etc...) . How would you say it compares to the Naim Nait you so lovingly reviewed? Thanks in advance.
BTW, I believe I have found the Holy Grail of HIFI (If I may be SO BOLD!).
ACCUPHASE!!!!!!!!!!! My cup of tea at least.
and thank for such a great web site!
Eric, and audiophool from Seattle Washington U.S.A
Eric - E-mail: ericdahlbeck (at)

Dear Eric,
the original T-Amp is still a gem, but three years have brought so many new products of the same kind that is hard not to make some comparison. For example, the Trends Audio TA 10.1 is a far better performer (at 4X cost, though!). If you're planning to buy one, hold on for a while as I'm going to test new Tripath-based and IcePower-based budget amplifiers that sound promising. Accuphase? Not exactly my cup of tea, if I may, but certainly a respectable brand, with a long tradition of building high quality components. In any case, you'd be surprised, provided the speakers are sensitive enough, by the embarassing sound of the TA 10.1. Even when compared to some Accuphase integrated amp. If you can, try this comparison by yourself.
Hope this helped,
Lucio Cadeddu

Troubleshooting: Unison Research Uico
Dear Lucio,
First I want to express my sincere gratitude for your efforts. Most of my audiophile friends closely follow your page. I bought a brand new Unison Research Unico integrated about 7 months ago. When Unico properly heats up in about 10 or so minutes, tweeters start to emit a high pitched signal that I can liken it to amplified mosquito hum.
The distortion is unyielding and remains independent of volume level. For sure, I took it to a good repair center here in Manhattan as advised by its distributor. They were not able to put a diagnosis to the problem. I was even told they did not find something wrong with it.
Back home problem was there. I tried everything and almost exhaust every possibility to trouble-shoot it myself. My efforts include swapping the tubes in pre-amp section left and right and changing them with good quality Mullards, using different speaker cables, different pair of speakers and plugging noise harvesting devices in my listening room. Nothing worked. I do not believe my flat has a ground-loop problem as my other separates work just fine. I thought you may have come across or heard same sort of problem with Unicos. If you think there might be a quick fix to the problem will you please let me know?
Thanking in advance for your assistance.
Best regards,
Haldun - E-mail: haldun.tekneci (at)

Dear Haldun,
first of all go back to the repair center and ask to assist to their test. If it works fine there then there's something wrong in your set-up. Try installing it in a different house, for example. If that's not possible, try using a different source (even the PC audio board or an iPod would be fine). What happens if you don't connect any source, for example? Also try installing it in a different room. Have you monitored the mains voltage?
When all else fails, contact Unison Research in Italy, I'm sure thay can lend a hand.
Keep me updated,
Lucio Cadeddu

Harsh sound
Dear Mr. Cadeddu,
My name is Panagiotis and I live in Athens, Greece. I recently discovered your site and I have to admit that I was totally amazed by the quality of your work. Well done!! I believe that your work has helped lots of people improve the sound of their system. I am sure you will understand me and that is why I have decided to ask your advice.
I am 22 years old and have only two years of experience with hi-fi systems. My system consists of a Yamaha AX-496 stereo integrated amplifier (2x85W), Tannoy Sensys 1 loudspeakers (Bookshelf / 88db), Velodyne CHT-10R subwoofer and Marantz CD5001 CD Player. Cables are from Kimber Kable.
My listening room is relatively small, a typical bedroom (20-25 m2) and music preferences include rock, jazz, blues and vocals in general. I generally like the overall sound my system produces but I have one strong complaint: the voices are quite sharp / dry and unpleasant to listen to when the volume is above the 9 to 10 o'clock position. I use authentic CD's and not MP3's, I have changed the cables and the positioning of my speakers but the problem remains. I am thinking of changing my amplifier which I believe is responsible for that. I have decided to go for the Atoll IN50 which sells for 500 euros in my country.
I like its audiophile approach, the fact that it is not made in China but in France and I also like its sound. Other choices in this price range (or lower) could be Cambridge Audio 640a v2, NAD c352, Advance Acoustic MAP-105, Harman/Kardon HK970, Marantz PM7001, Pioneer A-A6-J and Rotel RA 04. But they all seem the same and are all made in China.
However, considering that I have not much experience, I would like you to tell me what do you think of my choice. Will the Atoll's french sound be a good match to my british (well, Malaysian) Tannoy speakers? Finally, I would be grateful if you could suggest me some other amplifier around 500 euros that would be fine. I am mainly interested in the mid-high area and not the bass since my subwoofer does a very nice job.
I would be very grateful If you could find some time and give me a hand! Thanks in advance!
Panagiotis - by e-mail

Dear Panagiotis,
first of all you need to be sure your listening room isn't the real cause for the harsh sound you refer. Try clapping your hands around the room, for example, and listen to the sound the room creates. If you can detect a kind of metallic echo (or reverb) than you need to put more furniture like curtains, carpets, pillows and paintings (without glass).
The higher the listening level, the stronger the influence of the room becomes (this may explain why you hear this "unpleasant" sound especially at high volume settings).
That said, you might need a warmer and gentler amplifier. The Atoll IN50 isn't your best choice, then. You'd be safer with a NAD integrated amplifier, for example. It deoesn't matter if it is made in China, many high-end components are actually manufactured in China (and some are even re-badged! ;-)).
Try auditioning a NAD C352, you won't be disappointed. In any case, if the reason for the sound you hear is the acoustic response of your room...a new amp won't help much, I'm afraid.
Hope this helped,
Lucio Cadeddu

Getting stuffed
Hi Mark
I've enjoyed the articles on DIY speaker building and just finished your article on "get stuffed". I'm building a 5 litre bass reflex box with a single small Fostex 3" driver (bottom of attached page) and am having a heck of a time deciding on how much attention I should pay to cabinet deadening, stuffing and so on. It's obviously a small speaker with limited bass response and will not be played loud.
The speakers will primarily be used in the TV room for background music through satellite radio or a portable CD player. I have a much more ambitious system elsewhere.
I have considered adding a brace and thus possibly eliminating the need for any stuffing, or adding some cabinet lining or adding a bit of polyester stuffing or...... Any advise would be appreciated. I have scoured the internet looking for someone who has built this design, but no luck. The Fostex people have not replied to my queries as well. The guys at Madisound (they sold me the drivers) said to forget the port and use it as a sealed system and Solen in Quebec said to merely add a bit of polyester stuffing.
Thanks Mark
Bill - E-mail: bizi (at)

Hi Bill,
I have looked at the attached drawing to establish how, merely on the basis of my experience with other designs, it might be improved.
Good quality ply-wood will be a good start. I would use 18mm or 25mm birch ply-wood. A central brace from front to back might improve rigidity but with this driver and that quality of wood it should not be necessary. As this is basically a rear loading horn, that area should not be stuffed at all. That would change it from an acoustic transformer to a transmission line (in the electrical analogy sense of the words, not in speaker-speak). Far more useful would be to radius the sudden changes in cross-sectional area using 2-pack wood filler or cut down house plumbing pipes. This would apply to the reflector near the base of the cabinet and especially in all those corners where the horn folds. Likewise the inside corner of each fold should be radiused with a router bit.
The only place where some absorption might be useful is in the closed area below the driver, equally it might ruin the effect of the horn and the only way to find out is to try it. I am surprised that area is not tapered, which would remove the need for any stuffing at all.
This is an ambitious project for background radio listening; I wonder what your main system is like?
Happy building and listening,
Mark Wheeler

Consonance CD 120 review
Hi Mark,
If you wouldn't mind answering a couple of questions I have about your TNT Audio review of the Consonance CD-120 Linear CD player, I would really appreciate it.
My first question is regarding this passage in your review:
"Ian Large notes that the cd120L responds well to tweaking. He suggests a good inexpensive mod is to change the input caps to 0.47uf Hi-Q black gates, and use SCR 1.0 uf caps on the output stage. I would endorse both these proposals as likely to lead to worthwile improvements, having tried both series of caps myself, but this review is straight-from-the-box."

What sorts of sonic improvements would you expect to be wrought by substituting these capacitors for the stock ones? And since, I believe, Black Gate has ceased production, do you know of any equivalent substitutions? Perhaps VH Audio's V-Caps?
Also, in your conclusion about the player, you wrote: "This player rocks OK, at the price". Since I mostly listen to rock music, I'd be interested in knowing what the player doesn't do so well in playing back harder rock and electronic music. And, what players around the $995 US price point you've heard that would be better in this regard.
Thanks in advance for whatever insight you're able to provide, it is appreciated.
Thanks much,
Todd - by email

I did not try the tweaks myself, but the importer Ian Large did on another example. However, I do know what the caps he reomoved sound like in other contexts and I do know what the substitues sound like as i have used them myself in various projects.

Some people believe the SCR have what they describe as a "metallic sound". I've used SCR/Solen in everything from loudspeaker crossovers to valve HT circuits because they are very robust, regardless of their sonmic signature. Like any passive component flavour I strongly advise NOT to use the same brand or type throughout a componant or system as it becomes too strongly falavoured of one flavour. Caps really do make a difference to the sound, which is hardly surprising given their inherent non-linearity and micrphony.

The web seems to be awash with NOS (New Old Stock) Black Gates, though how many of them are genuine I cannot say. I have my own little stockpile bought while production was still in full flow. I have not tried the V-caps myself. Big value audiophile caps are either far too expensive to justify their existence, or a compromise. Many years ago Graham Nalty, formerly of Audiokits and Sonic Link, and now proprietor of Black Rhodium, conducted experiments that established, for him, the 1/100 rule for bypassing. Each bypass should be 1/100 of the value of the cap it bypasses, in a descending line until the smalles silver-mica is reached. However, many in the SET brigade believe that bypassing causes "diffusion" and say that a single capacitor of the finest type available in that value is the only way to work. This of course is mind-bogglingly expensive.

In power supplies I bypass, both at the smoothing stage and at the local bypass adjacent to the active device. Coupling capacitors I buy the best I can afford, but I vary brands; I used to be a Wondercap fan but find their successor Infinicaps a bit edgy in comparison. Hovland Musicaps are good for small value coupling. Cathode bypass capacitors I have always found a single Black Gate to be in a league fo their own and I do not know what I will use instead in my next project.

This Consonance is a timing player par excellence, due I suspect to its filtering arrangements (I have been audioning another filterless DAC recently and it is very much in the same mould). If you want maximum drive and energy you'd be better off looking at offerings from Naim or Avondale Audio (see my review), or getting Avondale mods done to something like the Consonance.
Happy New Year Listening
Mark Wheeler

Dear Mr Kohli,
I read with interest your article on the Cayin integrated amp versus the Creek Classic. I was so happy to read your article as I had just auditioned both these amps for my upgrade. I notice however that Cayin (Acoustic Sounds) offer a 3 year warranty in the USA. I am based at Kolkata in India and have just an area of concern in that I am not sure of the sort of warranty or services that are going to be available in India.
I do listen to a wide genre of music including jazz both western and eastern classical and contemporary and I did find the sound stage wider and the bass definitely more full from the Cayin. I was using the Dali Ikon 6 as my set of speakers.
Finally, thank you very much for your review. I did come away from the shop thinking Cayin not Creek but does the lack of facilities for bi-wiring make a lot of difference?
Sanjay - E-mail: scmdbakshi (at)

Bakshi sahib namaste,
Glad you liked the review and found it useful. The only need I'd have for a a line level output is to drive my subwoofer. So I draw a parallel line from the speaker outputs, and get by. However if you use speaker level signal to feed a line level input, you must be sure there is a buffer on the input or you may overload whatever you are feeding. Warranty is a stickier issue, though I have not had a problem with the Cayin all these years it is not something I would sleep well without.
Arvind Kohli

Readers' surveys
Hi Lucio and all tnt reviewers - Happy New Year!
i am looking forward to the next newsletter and reviews and readers letters, you constantly raise new topics and find the most interesting gear to review; some just plain and simple and others very esoteric. You may have had a readers survey before, but if not I would like to suggest one to find out what kind of equipment the average reader has, in what price range, preferences, recommendations etc.
When you and your reviewers talk of budget, mid-priced, high-end, what are the price ranges you are thinking of and what percentage of your readers would class their own equipment in such price ranges. Of course price ranges are not necessarily a measure of performance or quality, so one would have to try to take those factors into account in a reader survey.
TNT has sometimes given harsh criticism of "expensive" gear or given the verdict "not up to expectations for the price" and on the other hand found some budget equipment that has performed well outside its price class. Put the questions to reader: What do we enjoy most on the TNT site? What type of gear do we want you to review? On the whole I think you strike a very good balance; all tastes are catered for, digital and analogue source material, solid-state or valves, and all sorts of accessories.
Personally I enjoy most the equipment reviews and DIY projects and tweaks that are within my budget and ambition but it is also enjoyable now and again to read about gear one might just dream about as far as price goes (and I'm not taking into account performance). Just to quote one recent example, Nick Whetstone's review of VertexAQ system optimisation: when I added up what it would cost to buy all the components for the basic level it came to far more than the cost of a total source - amp - speaker package of well-reviewed gear! At first I thought this really was cloud cuckoo land, but then I relaxed and thought well, sweet dreams!
Mike - E-mail: michael.shanahan (at)

Dear Mike,
trying to please and satisfy each and every audiophile on Planet Earth is a tough task. A mission: impossible, indeed. Let me try to explain how we love to work: first of all we try to please ourselves. This is supposed to be fun, so we try to test components that, for one reason or another, stimulate our curiosity, either because they're very inexpensive (or expensive!) or weird, strange, innovative and so on.
Secondly, we try to avoid saying "No, thanks" too many times in a row. This means that sometimes we review things kindly offered by manufacturers. Sometimes we get interesting things to review, sometimes not...and this is the most difficult part of our task.
Finally, we strongly appreciate suggestions from readers! We actually receive many of these. These suggestions may generate a review, if the manufacturer is ready to loan us a test sample and we have the time to review it, sometimes this doesn't happen because manufacturers prefer to submit their items to magazines where, in a way or another, they can control the outcome of the review (by means of advertising pressure or whatever). Sometimes we don't have the time to review everything which is available.
Hope this clarifies a bit...
Lucio Cadeddu

PC as HiFi source
Hi Nick!
Wrote an email to Lucio a few monts ago about my newly started trip with disk space as the digital source for high end music listening. He referred to You as the digital source guru.....
The beginning of that was a mail chat with one the Hifi-gurus I really think has something to say about Hifi in Sweden Jan Svalander at Svalander audio ( He told me that he has almost skipped the CD as a source and mostly use disk space with 6-8.000 CD:s ripped into WAV format through the EAC ripper ( That instead of using multi thousand £ a CD-player.
He's setup was with an orinary PC with the E-MU sound card 1616M (
My trip has now started with a Creative (that ownes E-MU) Sound Blaster X-fi Elite Pro 6L that will go to Denmark and Lars Clausen at for modification with a better clock and possible anothe UWB regulator. This card uses the same D/A converter as the best E-MU cards but has not balanced in/outputs, but has instead multi channel suppot (7:1).
I'm currently building a HTPC in a nice serious case that will from the beginning operate together with dual mono setup of NCD1's from NewclassD but will hopefully in the future be a full 5:1 system (from NewclassD or others).
What Your experience with theese kind of equipment?
Best regards,
Håkan - E-mail: hakan (at)

Hi Håkan,
I don't know that I would call myself a guru but as they say, "In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king!".
My experience is with USB DAC (the Trends as reviewed on TNT) but more so with the Slim Devices Squeezebox (SB3) which I use, slightly modified with an external DAC.
I prefer the SB3 to a sound card as I get remote control and a display, without needing to use a monitor and some method of controlling the serving PC.
I was also concerned by the amount of noise inside a PC which I feel will limit the audio performance to some degree! Having said that, I know people (a friend even) who uses the sound-card method and are totally happy with their set-up.
We are certainly in the early days of PC audio so who knows what will come along next. And we can expect to see various options and formats, although thankfully in this case, the data format will be fairly constant, ie WAV, FLAC MP3 etc. (I use FLAC).
As regards building a PC dedicated to audio, or a HTPC, I found this most informative:;jsessionid=w6jp5a7o11.zebra_s
In fact, I would say that it is a must-read!
Once you get hooked on the convenience of PC-Audio, it is hard to go back to even the best of CDPs! In my circumstances, I can afford a much better quality sound from PC-Audio than I could from buying a better quality CDP. And most of the folks who have PC-Audio say the same thing.
I will be staying with the SB3 for now, hopefully converting it to run via I2S with my choice of DAC (rather than SPDIF). My only real advice is to be aware that this is all changing quickly and not to spend too much of your money on one solution. PC-Audio doesn't have to be expensive to get very good results. And as I said previously, this technology is young and changing all the time!
Nick Whetstone

Merlino puzzles
Dear Lucio,
My compliments on the TNT-info-site from Holland. I've read you're articles about cables with great interest and am thinking of experimenting myself with some DIY cables. "Start at the beginning of the chain" is always told me, so I'll start with the Merlino of course :-)
In the article on the Merlino it says:

"So, since repetita iuvant:
connect the three wires to the component plug and leave the shield free at this end. Then connect the shield to the ground wire just into the plug that will go into the wall socket, the other two wires being connected as usual."
I understand that I connect ALL of the 3 wires to the component-plug I also understand that I connect the 2 wires, other than the groundwire to the wall-plug.
And I understand that I connect the groundwire to the shielding of the cable at the wall-plug but what puzzles me is the following:
Do I connect the groundwire to the shield AND to the wall-plug or do I only connect that cable to the shield???
Dism - E-mail: dism (at)

Dear Dism,
this appears to be a frequently asked question. So here we go: the ground wire has to be connected at both ends, in order to make it work, of course! The shield should be left unconnected (that is, floating) at the component's end and connected to the ground wire at the wall plug's end. In other words, the shield should act as an antenna that sends to earth all the interferences that might reach the cable.
I hope this clarifies things a bit. If still in doubt, before taking dangerous decisions, ask a friend in the know to make the work for you. Electricity kills.
Lucio Cadeddu

Naim Nait
I read with pleasure and interest your article praising the Nait 1. As someone who has just recently purchased my second Nait 2 (the first having finally been pronounced unrepairable by NANA), I'm very curious about the differences between the 1 and the 2. The 2 is, to me, an unbeatable magic box. When my first 2 died, I bought first (since I had much trouble locating another 2) a Linn Majik, to power my Linn LP12, Mimik II and Kudos. I was incredibly disappointed. I suspect the Majik couldn't handle my B&W 805's and 800 ASW, despite its much higher power rating, but man oh man the sad difference.
When I finally found another 2, life returned to my listening. Sorry for this rambling email from a stranger; I'll try to get to my point. How would you compare the 1 and the 2 sonically? Does the 1 have that same heavy fast punch as the 2? And so on? Any words you could offer on this subject would be appreciated. I am trying to put together a second system and was thinking of dumping the Majik (which I originally thought to keep for just such a purpose) and going with a Nait 1. If you have no time for my query, I certainly understand. Just thought I'd ask, as one Nait lover to another.
Happy listening,
Ted - E-mail: worozbyt (at)

Dear Ted,
the Nait 1 and 2 are quite close, the former being just a bit warmer and darker. Nait 2's are much easier to find and, normally, they don't need much servicing, apart from a mandatory recap (new power supply caps, that is). I understand your disappointment when comparing the Majik to the Nait. If you read my review of the Linn amp, you'll find the following note Avoid difficult loudspeakers since the Majik isn't a "drive-it-all" kind of amplifier. That's exactly what you have discovered by yourself. Sometimes reviews prove to be useful ;-)
Anyway, if you don't need high power...don't forget to listen to the Trends Audio TA 10.1 integrated amp. Power output aside, it beats the Nait hands down (I know, it's sad to admit).
Keep me updated,
Lucio Cadeddu

New T-Amp
I just finished my first session with the "new" Sonic-Impact T-Amp. The company claims the unit is designed from the ground up and replaces the original T-Amp. It also comes packaged with a 3-amp power supply.
My first impression listening to its reproduction of music (vinyl via the TC-754 "preamp", Daniels Audio interconnects and speaker cable, and Klipsch KG-4 speakers) is that the new T-Amp does just about everything better than the original. Although it's a little quieter overall, it has much better dynamics, pace, imaging, and a sense of cohesiveness and solidity to the instruments.
T-Amp w/ power supply from ... just under $60. Hoo aah!
Take care,
Scott - E-mail: scotbuck (at)

Dear Scott,
thanks for the precious info. I do not know how this new T-Amp compares with the previous Super T-Amp but certainly the Trends Audio TA 10.1 beats the latter. I'm going to compare (together with the TA 10.1 and the Super T-Amp) another (!!!) TA2024-based integrated amplifier that sells for 49$ (+24$ for the AC adapter) so...stay tuned!
Lucio Cadeddu

Cheap amps
Dear Lucio,
I am very happy to know that a site like is available for everyone!!! Thanks for that. I am thinking on buying a good amp. Not looking at models costing more than 200 euros, do you think that the Trends TA 10.1 is the best option? If not, what do you think could be better?
About the speakers for this model, I know about the sensivity problem. What do you think I can buy with 200 euros, or less, to match this amp, with good quality?
Thanks in advance.
Best Regards,
Edgar - E-mail: edgar_barbosa (at)

Dear Edgar,
with 200 € in hand you should browse the second-hand market, in search for some Klipsch loudspeaker. Otherwise, you can choose a standard integrated amp (entry-level models from NAD, Cambridge Audio etc.) and match it to average sensitivity loudspeakers. On the other hand, depending on the Country you live in, you might find entry-level Klipsch loudspeakers (NEW, not second-hand) that can match the Trends TA 10.1, provided your room isn't too large.
Keep me updated,
Lucio Cadeddu

Class A operation
I read your nice article about supply for amplifier. You said that Class-A amps have a constant current. That's not true? Only when you don't have a signal the amp has the current constant, the idling current. With the signal in you have a varying current around this idling current? Because the idling current can be high it's hard to not get hum in silence part?
Ola - E-mail: oabrahamsson (at)

Dear Ola,
I'm not 100% sure about the meaning of your question but here's how a Class A amplifier works: 100% of the input signal is used (conduction angle = 360° or 2?). This means that the output devices are always in the conduction region. In a Class A amplifier all transistors draw current all the time, until the amplifier starts to reach its limit, caused by a too large input signal. This is why Class A amplifiers are always (very) any listening level their transistors are drawing all the current they can (and part of this is delivered to the speakers, the greatest part is transformed into heat). Their power consumption is constant, independent from the load and the volume level.
In a class A amplifier output transistors are "on" all the time, while in standard A/B amplifier these work "part time" (they switch on/off and this causes distortion). Sorry for the gross approximation.
Hope this helped,
Lucio Cadeddu

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